Traveling around South America by flight can be cheap,
cheap, cheap. The South American
countries are still and always a bargain and there are economical travel options even in relatively
expensive and developed countries such as Argentina and Chile, where camping is king. And still no mention has been made of Bolivia's Salar
de Uyuni, the tepuis of Venezuela or even
Carnaval for that matter. Hotel fares are cheaper than any other place. You can book hotels online services like expedia or hotel clubs.
Daydream a travel fantasy and you can make it happen here. Major cruise lines like Celebrity Cruises,Holland America Line,NCL
are operating along the coast of South America. Some cruises are operates along Amazon river and explore the biggest rainforest.
South America having rich wildlife and animals living in South America are anaconda,jaguar,Black Howler Monkey,Chinchilla,Degu and many
World Discovery" in 1492, a chain of events began which transformed the western hemisphere.
Age-old American cultures, some of high-attainment levels, were shattered almost overnight. European
nations established colonies and introduced their value systems and their political, economic, and
social organizations. All mother countries employed the mercantalistic philosophy toward their colonies
which, along with usurpation of native-held lands and enslavement of Indians, formed the basic
foundation of the colonial economy. South America, that part of the western hemisphere south of the
United States, felt the brunt of the European conquest a century or more before European presence
was significant in Anglo-America. To a large degree, the present differences between Latin America
and Anglo-America are a result of differences in colonial mother countries, British and French mainly in
Anglo-America, and Spanish and Portuguese in Latin America.
At the time of Spanish and Portuguese conquests, some 75 to 100 million Indians inhabited south
America. Most lived within the densely settled realms of high-culture groups: Inca and Chibcha .
These groups had a well-developed social, political, and economic organization, although the Inca
civilization was declining and had lost some of its internal cohesiveness. Agriculture formed the
livelihood base, and advanced land-management techniques were common. Irrigation, land drainage,
fertilization, terracing, and crop and land rotation were widely practiced. Crops used by these and other
groups within Latin America apparently had been largely developed independently from the outside
world. The more well-known cultigens included maize (corn), manioc, sweet and white potatoes,
pineapple, cacao, tomato, avocado, cotton, tobacco, and peanuts. To this list is added a number of
plants such as beans and squash varieties which were also cultivated in many other parts of the world.
Few domestic animals were found in Latin America The dog was ubiquitous, and the Incas had the
guine, pig as a pet and food source, the llama as a beast, burden, and the alpaca as a source of fiber.
The Spanish and Portuguese conquest of South America was both rapid and devastating. The Spanish
quickly carved out a vast colonial empire extending from California to Tierra del Fuego. In the space of
sixty to seventy years, they explored, established sovereignty, and organized politically and
economically an area of about 9.5 million square miles (24.6 million square kilometers). The Portuguese
moved less quickly onto the east coast of South America, where they found few Indians.
The location of large, high culture Indian groups was especially attractive to the European conquerors.
These groups possessed the elements needed to satisfy the conquerors' wants: accumulated stores of
,gold and silver, an abundant and well trained labor supply for work in the fields and mines, and a large
population for the church to convert to Catholicism.
The early Portuguese and Spanish rarely brought their families. Indeed most Europeans apparently
intended to return to their European homes. Miscegenation between Spanish and Portuguese men and
Indian and African women was widespread, contributed to retarding population decline, and gave rise
to two new racial groups: the mestizo (part European, part Indian) and the mulatto (part European, part
African). Of these two groups the mestizo became the more numerous, One lasting effect of racial
mixing has been the lack of significant racial prejudice in Latin America. These racial groups varied in
their distribution and have given rise to distinct differences among the various parts of the region .
Tropical rainy areas have been a dilemma to all European powers in South America. On the one hand,
the luxuriant broadleaf evergreen forest with its hundreds of different tree species and a warm, always
moist climate is much like a greenhouse promising great productivity. In Latin America, the promise is
yet to become a reality. Today, the tropical rainy areas are sparsely populated and of limited economic
value, yet in the Asian tropics large populations are supported. Along the east coast of Central
America, United States fruit companies established plantations devoted largely to bananas for export
but tap only a small part of the area. The Amazon Basin has intrigued developers from colonial time,
but successful use has been limited. Brazil is now engaged in a massive road-building and colonization
program in the Amazon.